Sunday, November 15, 2009

TARIHIN KASAR HAUSA

KUMA TARE DA NA UKU
ADABIN HAUSA

TARIHIN HAUSA ATAKICE
Kasar Hausa ita ce yankin nan na kasar Sudan wanda ke wajen yammacin kasar Afrika, daga gabas da ita akwai Kasar Borno, daga yamma kuma kasar Dahoma (Jamhuriyar Benin a yanzu), daga Arewa ga hamadar sahara, daga kudu kuma akwai kasashen Nufe da kasashen da ake kira “Middle Belt” a takaice.
Kasar Hausa wata bangare ce ta Arewacin Najeriya da kudancin Nijar, tana da fadin kasa tare da bishiyoyi dogaye da gajeru a mafi yawan wurare, kuma kasa ce mai ni’ima tare da albarkar wajen shuka, kuma tana da tsayayyun yanayi guda hu]u duk shekara su ne Sanyi, da Zafi, da Rani, da kuma Damina.
Irin sana’o’in da ake da su sun hada da Noma, da Kiwo, da Rini, da Kira, da Jima, da Sassaka da dai sauransu. Kuma a wancan lokaci ba su da wani abu tsayayye da za a kira da suna kudi illa iyaka ban gishiri na ba ka manda (Cikin Furfure).
Misali Manomin da yake bukatar wuka, ko Fartanya, ko Lauje, sai ya dauki Hatsinsa ya kai wa Makeri.
Haka ma Makerin idan yana bukatar a yi masa wani aiki kamar yabe, to sai dai ya ba da abubuwan da yake kerawa kamar su Garma, ko Takobi ko makamancinsu, a ladan aikin.
Da haka sai ka ga kowa ya samu biyan bukatunsa, kuma rayuwa ta saukaka.
Irin wannan nau’in ciniki shi ake kira cinikin ‘Furfure’. Amma ko ba a fadi ba irin wannan rayuwa, tana bukatar kowa ya yi aiki tukuru, tare da nusar da mutum ya zuwa ga yin tsimi da tanadin abin da ya yi saura don gaba.

Wannan ya sa tsarin tattalin arzikin Hausawa a wancan lokaci ya ginu a kan sana’o’insu.
Kafuwar Al’ummar Hausawa:
Kafuwar al’ummar Hausa ta faru tun can zamani mai tsawo. Zamanin da jahilci da duhun kai suka yi wa duniya kanta. Yayin da kowacce daga cikin al’ummomin duniya ba ta san da zaman kowa ba, in ka ]ebe ita kanta da ‘yan kabilu daya ko biyu masu makwabtaka da ita. Wato lokacin da dan Adam ke bautawa dukkan wani abin da ke ba shi tsoro ko mamaki, saboda ya wuce hankalinsa. Ma’ana ya kasa fahimtarsa. Irin wannan matsayi na sa Dan’adam ya bauta wa abubuwa da dama kwatankwachi su rana, da wata da itatuwa da rafuka da duwatsu, da aljanu, har ma da dabbobi. Kaico! Ke nan bautawa aljanu (Bori) da kangida da su ‘Dodo’ su ne nau’o’in addinin Bahaushe na tun farko-farkon kafuwar al’ummarsa.

AL'UMMAR HAUSAWA TA BANGARAN SHUGABANCI
Shugabanci na nufin rikon ragamar al’umma da ba su umarni da yi musu jagoranci bisa tafarkin da suka amince da shi, da tsara musu dokoki da sasanta tsakaninsu, da makamantan wadannan.

Shugabanci ta bangaren al’adun Hausawa kuwa, ya faro ne daga tsarin zaman iyali inda Maigida yake kamar Sarki a gidansa, a kullum shi ne babba, daga nan sai matarsa da sauran yaran gida. Yayin da aka samu gidaje biyu ko fiye da haka akan zabi wani dattijo a matsayin shugaba, ko kuma wani jarumi wanda ya nuna ya fi kowa sadaukantaka da jaruntaka da dauriya.

Wasu dalilai kamar halin kunci a cikin gida ko bukata irin ta tsaro ko rashin zaman lafiya, kan sa Maigida ya fitar da wasu daga cikin ‘ya‘yansa zuwa wani guri na daban, kamar gona ko garke. Ta haka ne iyali kan yadu su yawaita su hada wani kauye.

Saboda haka ne sai a kara zabar wani shugaban da zai shugabanci wannan kauye. Wannan shi ya haifar da mukamin MAI UNGUWA kuma shi zai dinga tsara musu dokoki.
Kauye yakan bunkasa ya zama gari sosai, a sakamakon haka sai a kara zabar wani mutum a matsayin Maigari (Fagaci) don kula da wannan gari.
Da aka samu ci gaba kuma, garuruwa suka kara yawaita sai aka samar da mukamin Hakimi, ana ba wa Hakimi garuruwan Maigari akalla biyar don ya kula da su.
Da tafiya tai tafiya, sai aka samar da mukamin Sarki inda ake hada wa Sarki masarautar Hakimi akalla biyar ko fiye domin ya shugabance su ya kuma shimfida musu dokoki domin zaman lafiya.
A takaice dai ajin shugabannin da ke tsara dokoki a tsakanin talakawansu sun hada da Maiunguwa, da Fagaci, da Hikimi, da Sarki, don haka a tsarin zaman Hausawa komai dukiyar mutum in ba ya cikin wannan jeri to talaka ne.
DAGA TASKAR GIDAN DABINO(TAURARON MARUBUTA)


WAKAR MASOYA WADDA (TAURARON MASOYA) YA RUBUTA
Comrade Rabi’u Na’auwa
Daga Birnin Ouagadougou Burkina Faso

Bissalam salama a gareki masoyiya a yau zan barki

1. Ya Allahu ya ahadu samadu
Lam ya ld walam yu ladu wahidu
Sarkin nan guda wanda yayo du
Duniya Rahimu ya kageni

2.Allahumma salli wala adadu
Wanda ba ya shi kuma har abadu
Bashi yaudara shi Muhammadu
Kinga yau mayau ni kin barni

3. Nai salati gun baban zahra
Jarumi maki gunta yaudara
Yayi tur da hali na yaudara
Amma kinka aikota gareni

4.Na iso cikin gaggawar
Domin ganinta nake sha’awar
Yan uwa kuyi mani ta’aziyar
Domin masoyiya ta barni

5.Mayaumasoyiya ta barni
gashi sonta ya kamani
Rashin sani ya kwareni
Da na barta tun tuni babu sani

Ki tuna fa ni ne mai sonki
Mai zurfafawa kan sonki
Mai yin bajintar kaunarki
Kin manta wannan kin barni

Ki tuna batun alkawarinmu
Na ranar nishadinnan tamu
Juma’a ta zamto ranarmu
A gidanku amma kika barni

Ashirin da huddu fa su na tuna
Ga augusta na san zaki tuna
Kika dauki alkawari ki tuna
Amma kinka karya kika barni

Ki tuno kalaman nan naki
Baki yaudara a kalamanki
Baki cin amanar kaunarki
Gashi kinci tawan kin barni


To gashi yau kinci amana
Ki tuno da sonmu fa na amana
Alkawar fa kaya ne ki tuna
Kin karya shi yau kin barni

Ki tunafa ni ne nassoki
Naki tanka kowa dominki
Na bayar da kaina a gareki
Hally a yau kin barni

Ki tuno da ranar soyayya
Wadda munka yita a can baya
Ki tuno nishadinmu na baya
Kin zubda shi yau kin barni

Kin butulci fannin soyayya
Kin karya darajar soyayya
Kin yaudara bisa soyayya
Tinda gashi kin yita gareni

Ki tuno nasiharki garemu
Dadi ko wuya mu rike kanmu
Mu rike amanar junanmu
Har mu cimma buri babu hani

Gashi dukka kin ture wannan
Babu kuskure daga ni dinnan
Ke kinka furta kalaman nan
Ofishinku ban manta ki sani

Zai kyau ki san son alkawari
Bashi saiduwa don dinari
Masoya kuzan cika alkawari
Ku rikeshi ba ji babu gani

Gashi na rikeshi daram ku sani
Mayaumasoyiya ce ta gujeni
Ta kareshi kal domin ku sani
Babu so a yau ta barni

Sai mu daina koyi da irinsu
Kunga duniya ta rudesu
Mu mu bita sannu fa ya nasu
Na garinmu balle yan birni

Zai kyau gaba daya muyi nazari
A duniya mu yi Alkairi
Don lahira muga alkairi
Kin manta wannan kin barni

Yanzu dai nasiha zan yi maki
Ki rike mijinnan naki
Domin ki san Aljannarki
Na gareshi ban son yai yi hani

Zaifi kyau ki san soyayya
Bata bin tunanin dukiya
Lallai mubar son zuciya
Dube misali kin gujeni

Arrahimu nai yi kira Jalla
Ka haneni yaudara duk wahala
Ka tsaremu fadawa wahala
Don Hally yau ta barni

Gani yau a Burkina ba wahala
Wagaduggu naccika su jumla
Baitocinga sun ka zamo jumla
Ashirin da huddu ku zamfa sani

Alhamdu Jalla gwani nawa
Da ka bani ikonjurewa
Na yi baituka ga mayau tawa
Da ta yaudareni ta cuceni.

DOMIN KARIN BAYANI SAI KANEMI SHAFIN www.gargajiyarbahaushe.blogspot.com

TARE DA SALISU NA UKU
TARIHIN KASAR MARADI (JAMHORIYAR NIGER)
Jihar Maradi itace cibiyar kasuwanci akasar niger, wacce Allah ya Albarkaceta, masana, malamai, masu kudi, da ma’aikata, sannan kuma tana daya daga cikin manyan garuruwa daga cikin garuruwan kasar hausa, saboda tana daya daga cikin garuwuwa na kudancin Niger karkashin manyan garuruwan kasar hausa, kuma ta kasance karkashin mulkin Katsina shiyasa ma ake mata lakabi da Katsinan Maradi domin kuwa katsinan ta mulketa tun lukacin yake yaken kasar hausa, kuma hasalima yanzu idan za a kira sarautar maradi sai ance Sarkin Katsinan Maradi kaga kenan zamu iya cewa Maradawa Katsinawane tun asali.
Maradi tayi yake yake sosai a kasar hausa inda taci nasarar wasu garuruwa, wasu kuma suka bata kashi, amma dai tarihi ya nuna Bamarade jarumine, kuma bashi tsoro, wannan shisa ta bunkasa a kasar hausa har lukacin zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka nan kasar hausa inda suka sha gwagwarmaya da turawa a wancan lukacin, a zamanin Sarki Katsinan Maradi Daci, tsakanin shekara ta 1892 zuwa 1894.
Bayan jihadin Sheik Usman Dan fodio mujaddadi, inda yaki Sarakunan Kasar hausa ya kuma jaddada addinin Musulunci a wannan nahiyar, ya kuma canza sarakuna da dama musammam wadanda suka bujirewa kaidodinsa Maradin ta shiga cikin jerin kasashen wannan abu ya ritsa dasu, ta kuma sami sarakuna har guda 23 bayan kafuwar masarautar Maradi.

SARAKUNAN DA SUKAYI MULKI A KASAR MARADI
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Dan kasawa 1817-1830 Shekara 13
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Rauda 1830-1836 Shekara 6
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Dan Mari 1836-1843 Shekara 7
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Binoni 1843-1848 Shekara 5
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Dan Mehedi 1848-1851 Shekara 3
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Dan Baura 1851-1852 Shekara 1
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Dan Baskore 1852-1875 Shekara 22
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Barmo 1875-1879 Shekara 5
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Maza waje 1879-1882 Shekara 3
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Malam 1882-1883 Shekara 1
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Salau 1883-1887 Shekara 5
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Gulbi dan kaka 1887-1889 Shekara 3
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Dandadi 1889-1890 Shekara 1
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Mijin yawa 1890-1892 Shekara 2
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Naibo 1892-1894 Shekara 2
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Daci 1894-1897 Shekara 3
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Kure
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Mahamman Burja 1820
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Ali dan Kimale 1920
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Dan Kulodo 1920-1944 Shekara 24
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Dan Baskore 1944-1947 Shekara 3
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Elh Sani kure Buzu 1947-2004 Shekara 57
Sarkin katsinan Maradi Elh Ali Zaki 07/02/2005


BAHAUSHE MAI BAN HAUSHI
TARE DA SALISU NAUKU
DAGA TASKAR MALAM IBRAHIM SHEME
GABATARWA

A duk fadin kasar nan, babu al’ummar da ta fi ta Hausawa samun kalubale a kan salsalarta da rayuwarta. Ba wani abu ne ya janyo haka ba illa albarkar da Allah Ya yi wa Hausa da Hausanci, ya zamanto ko kaka mutum wanda ba Bahaushe ne ba ya yi gogayya da Hausawa, ya iya Hausa, to shi kam zai dauki kansa ne a matsayin Bahaushe. Wannan ya saba da yadda shi Bahaushen ya kan dauki kansa, domin komai jimawar da ya yi a wani wuri, to shi har abada a matsayin Bahaushe zai dauki kansa, ba dan mazauna wurin ba. Abin da ya janyo haka kuwa shine ganin yadda kasar Hausa ta zama dadaddiyar cibiyar ciniki tsakanin bakaken fatan Afrika na Sudan da kuma Larabawa, wanda ya sa kasar Hausa ta zama wajen zaman mutane da kabilu da yawa domin cinikayya. Su kansu Hausawan ba mazauna waje daya bane; daga Kano zuwa Gwanja, zuwa Salo da Kamaru da Kwango, duk babu inda Hausawa basu ratsa sun kafa sansani ba. Amma tushen su kasar Hausa domin nan suke dawowa, komai dogon zangon su. A dawowar ne suka dawowa da sababban abubuwa na dabi’u da tadodin al’ummatan da suka hadu da su, suke narkar da wadannan su zama nasu, har ma ta kai a dinga kokwanton ko a kwai Bahaushe na asali.

Sannan kuma Hausa (yaren), Hausawa (masu yaren) da kuma Hausanci (akidar masu yaren) sun samu wani babban kalubale a wannan karni na 21 da muka shigo, ba don komai ba sai don ganin yadda igiyar sauyin halayen al’umma suka shafi gundarin rayuwar Bahaushe. Wannan igiyar kuwa ta taho ne da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani wanda sukan kawo mana salo da yanayin rayuwar wadansu al’ummatai na duniya wadanda wani lokaci muka ga kamar akwai kamanceceniya a salon rayuwarsu da namu. A kokarin kwaikwayon wadannan al’ummatan ne ake samun babban kalubale a rayuwar Bahause ta zamani ta hanyar finafinai, domin wannan ita ce babbar hanyar da ake haskaka rayuwar al’ummatai kuma a`ke wakiltarsu.

Bugu da kari, nazarin Hausanci sai ya bambanata da nazarin rayuwar al’ummatai (Anthropology) ta yadda kusan kullum an fi karkata ga yaren Bahaushe, maimakon sauran fannonin na rayuwarsa. Sannan kuma ko a nazarin zamantakewarsa, an fi damuwa da haihuwa, rayuwa, mutuwa da bukukuwansa, watau tadodinsa, amma ba akidarsa, watau al’adarsa ba.

A wannan jagoran bayanin, zan yi kokarin in fayyace salsalar Bahaushe da kuma fito da gundarin akidarsa domin fahimtar yadda Bahause yake, da kuma yadda yakamata a wakilce shi ta kowacce hanya in ana son a yi masa adalci.

Bahaushe, Daga Ina Haka?

Babban abin da za a fara tambaya a nan shine, wai shin wanene Bahaushe? Wannan tambayar tana da ban mamaki domin ganin cewa babu wata kabila da ake tantamar salsalarta a Nijeriya. Misali, idan aka ce Yarabawa, an san wadanda a ke nufi. Amma da zarar ka ce Hausawa, sai a fara musu domin ana ganin yawan gaurayar al’ummatai, da kuma iya yaren Hausa na mutane da yawa ya sa bama za a iya cewa ga Bahaushe ba. Wannan tunani ya karfafu a bisa nazarin wani mai nazarin Harshe da ake kira Joseph Greenberg, wanda ya rasu a Amirka ranar 7 ga Mayu, 2001 yana dan shekara 85. A turbar nazarin da ya gina, Greenberg ya jagoranci ra’ayin cewa babu wata kabila Hausawa, domin su kansu Hausawan, a wajensu kalmar “Hausa” tana nufin yare – misali zaka ji mutum ya ce “bana jin Hausar wancan mutumin” – watau a nan, Hausa yare ce kenan.

Sannan kuma kusan kowannen Bahaushe zaka ji ya ce da kai ai shi ainihin iyayensa Fulani ne, Buzayene, Barebari ne, da dai sauransu. Amma kuma in ka tambaye shi ko yana jin wancan yaren na wadannan mutanen, sai ya ce da kai baya ji. Wannan shi ke dada dagula Hausa da Hausanci, a rasa ma wai shin wanene Bahaushen.

A wani hasashen an danganta samun kabilar Hausawa da auratayyar al’ummatai daga Afrika ta Arewa inda zaunannun wadannan wurare suka gauraya da buzaye, sannan aka samu Hausawa. Wannan kuwa ya faru ne a tsakanin 1050 da 1100.[1] Amma kuma wani manzarcin ya kalubalanci wannan hasahen inda ya ce babu wata tabbatacciyar hujja da ta nuna samun Hausawa bisa wannan auratayyar al’ummatan. A ganin wannan manazarcin, in an ce “Kasar Hausa” to ana nufin yankin da ake magana da yaren “Hausa”, ba wai wata kabila ba.[2] Sauran ra’ayin manazarta suma sun ginu ne a kan wannan ra’ayin. Ta haka, misali, Niven ya ce kalmar “Hausa” asalinta ta Buzaye ce, domin da wannan sunan suke kiran duk wanda ya fito daga arewancin kogin Kwara.[3] A wannan nazarin, Hausa kalma ce wadda Buzaye ke kiran duk bakar fatar da ke inda Larabawa ke kira Sudan . Abin mamaki, ita wannan kalmar ma tana nufin mutanen Abyssinia, watau Habasha, wanda wannan ya kawo hasashen cewa Hausawa daga Habasha suke; yanzu kam mun gane cewa kiran Hausawa da Hausa, da kuma kiran Habashawa da Hausa, duk aikin Buzaye ne.[4] Sannan kuma yin amfani da kalmar ma kaskanci ne na wariyar launin fatan da Buzaye ke yi wa duk wani baKi. Misali, tunda Hausa tana nufin Bahaushe da kuma Bahabashe, sai a ka samu wata danganta ta yadda a harshen Habashanci, “habshi” na nufin haushin kare. Saboda haka a wajen Buzayen wancan lokacin, duk wanda ke magana da wadannan yarurrikan to Bahabshi ko Bahaushe ne.[5] A takaice dai an daidata furucin Hausa da haushin kare, wanda kuma su Hausawa suna yin haka ga wadansu kabilun inda in mutum baya jin Hausa, sai su ce, “bagware ne”.

Skinner kuwa cewa yayi kalmar “Hausa” ta fito daga mutanen Songhai (inda Mali take yanzu) ne, domin sune suke kiran duk kauyukan da ke gabas da su hausa ko aussa, daga nan ne su “Hausawan” suka ari wannan kalmar suke kiran kansu da ita[6] – watau kafin wannan basu da wani suna da suke kiran kansu!

Sannan kuma manzartan tarihin kasashen Larabawa sun ziyarci kasar Hausa amma duk a rubutunsu, basu ambaci kalmar “Hausa ba” a matsayi sunan kabilun da suka hadu da su. Marubuta kamar su Leo Africanus wanda ya ziyarci kasar Hausa wajen karni daga 1513 zuwa 1515, bai ambaci mutanen da sunan Hausawa ba, sai dai ya ce “Mutanen Kano ”, “Mutanen Katsina”, da sauransu. Yarensu kuma sai ya ce suna magana da yaren “Mutanen Gobir”.

Wannan ya nuna cewa jimlar kalmar “Hausa” a matsayin nuni ga wata kabila sabon abu ne wanda bai wuce shekaru 400 ba. Amma kuma akwai daulolin Hausawa da masarautun Hausawa da ake magana da harshen Hausa fiye da shekaru 1000 da suka wuce. Idan haka ne, ashe Hausanci ba a yaren ya tsaya ba, akwai kabila wacce take da salsala. Makala suna “Hausawa” a matayin masu magana da yaren “Hausa” abu ne wanda wadansu suka yi wa Hausawan, amma basu Hausawan da kansu ba, kamar yadda Hausawa ke cewa da kabilar Igbo, “Inyamurai”, wanda kuma ba haka su Igbo suka kiran kansu ba.

Saboda haka ko da lokacin da Leo Africanus ya zo Kano , daular Kano ta yi fiye da shekaru 500 da kafuwa, kuma da Hausa ake tafiyar da ita. Ashe Hausanci ba yare ne ba, akwai kabila Hausa. A nan nafi karkata ga Muhammad Sani Ibrahim inda ya ce, Hausa suna ne da yake da ma’anar Harshe, da mutanen da suke magana da shi, da kuma kasar da ake magana da shi.[7]

Saboda haka sai mu koma tambayar farko, shin wanene Bahaushe? Amsar a nan ita ce duk wanda salsalarsa babu wani yaren iyaye sai Hausa, to shi ne Bahaushe. Idan a jerin iyaye da kakanni akwai wanda ba Bahaushe bane, to kai ma ba Bahaushe bane. Na aro wannan ma’aunin bisa cewa Hausanci kirar halitta ce, ba lafazi ba. Misali, a kasar Turawa, in a cikin iyaye da kakanninka akwai bakar fata, to ko kafi madara fari a matsayin bakar fata kake.

A wannan ma’aunin, babu maganar zama a wata al’umma da kuma sanin yarenta, domin ka zama dan wannan al’ummar (a nan, kabilar). Misali, duk iya larabcin bakar fatan da ya zauna a garin Maka, ba za a taba kiransa Balarabe ba, ba wai kawai don akwai banbancin tsakakin fatar Balarabe na aihini da bakar fata, ba, a’a, kawai ba Balarabe bane, kuma shi ma ya san haka. Haka duk iya Turancin bakar fata a Ingila ba za kira shi Ingilishi ba, sai dai dan kasar Ingila, domin Ingilishi (English) kabilace a Ingila tare da Sikotawa (Scottish), Irishawa (Irish) da kuma Welshawa (Welsh), kuma duk wadannan Turawa ne, farar fata; babu baki a cikinsu. Su kansu a Ingila din, zaka ji mutum na alfahari da kabilarsa – misali, duk da cewa shi fari ne, amma zai ce maka shi Ba’Irishe ne, ba Ingilishi ba. Saboda haka kamar Hausa, in ka ce English to ana nufin yaren da kuma Kabilar. Ta haka za a bambanta cewa “wannan mutumin British ne, amma fa dan kabilar Welshawa ne”

Bari in dawo gida. Idan, misali wani Bayarabe da matarsa suka bar kasar Yarabawa fiye da shekaru 100 da suka wuce, suka yada zango a wata unguwa a Kano suka yi zuri’a, to komai nisan zuri’ar da wadannan iyayen zuri’a, duk a Yarabawa suke. Halin zamantakewar su zai iya sa wadanda aka haifa daga baya basu ma san yaren iyayen nasu na asali ba, sai Hausa. Duk da haka, Yarabawa ne, domin salsalarsu ce. Idan dole sai an dangantasu da Hausa, to a iya kiransu abin da na kirkiro da Hausawan Zamantakewa. Amma ba Hausawa bane, domin Hausa ta wuce yare, kabila ce, tare da al’adunta na musamman, da kuma dabi’o’inta. Mutum zai iya rungumar wadannan domin ya zama Bahaushen Zamantakewa, amma ba zai zama Bahaushe ba, kamar yadda mutum zai iya karbar rayuwar Larabawa domin ya zama dan, misali, Dubai , amma ba zai taba zama Balarabe ba in ba shi ba ne.

Idan iyayen salsar sun ki su koyawa zuri’ar su yaren su domin suna son su bace su zama Hausawa (ko kuma mazaunan inda suka sami kansu), wannan ruwansu, amma wannan ba zai kankare musu Yarabancin ba. Mu danganta da cewa komai dadewar Bahaushe a Shagamu, ba zai taba tsammanin shi Bayarabe ne ba. Ta haka za a ga Hausawan Kamaru da Gana da Kwango, misali, wadansu basa jin Hausar sosai, ko kuma suna yin Hausar wata iri, amma kowanne daga cikinsu zai danganta salsalarsa da wani gari a kasar Hausa.

Wannan yana daga cikin ban mamakin albarkar da Allah ya yi wa Hausa da Hausawa – kullum wadanda ba Hausawa sai so suke a dauke su a matsayin Hausawa, duk da cewa suna da tasu kabilar – da akidodin – wacce ya kamata su daukaka.

Dabi’a, Tada (Gargajiya) da kuma Al’adar Bahaushe

Tari da yawa in an yi maganar “al’adar Bahaushe” ana maganar dabi’u da tadar Bahaushe ne. Babban abin da ke kawo wannan muhawar shine ganin yadda kusan duk nazarin da ake yi wa Hausawa, ana yi ne daga turbar harshe, ba daga turbar mu’amala da tarbiyya ba. Wannan ya saba da yadda manazartar rayuwar al’umma ke nazarin sauran al’ummatan. Kuma kasancewa masu nazarin Hausawa na farko-farko sun yi daga wannan kusurwar ta nazarin harshe, sai aka ci gaba da wannan turbar. Ina mai fatan bude wata hanyar nazarin rayuwar Bahause a bisa alkiblar nazarin rayuwar dan Adam ba kawai ta harshe ba.

Hanya ta farko ta barin waccan kusurwar nazarin ita ce bambanta dabi’ar Hausawa, tada (ko gargajiyar) Hausawa, da kuma al’adar Hausawa. Wadannan rukunayen rayuwa dole a bambantasu kamar yadda masu nazarin salsalar al’umma (Anthropologists) suke yi wa sauran al’ummatan. Domin a samu kyakkyawar fahimta, dabi’a dai ita ce, social behavior; tada ko gargajiya kuma, customs and traditions; sannan al’ada kuma mores and midsets.

A bisa wannan ma’unin, dabi’a tana nufin yanayin zaman mutum, tada da gargajiya kuma na nufin yanayin da aka gada kaka da kakanni, wanda zai iya bambanta da yanayin zaman mutum a yanzu, ko kuma halin da mutum ya samu kansa. Al’ada kuma tana nufin sinadarin mu’amalar mutum, ko kuma tarbiyyarsa. Al’ada a gaba take da dabi’a, kuma zata iya jagoranta. Idan an ce mutum ba shi da al’ada mai kyau, ana nufin bashi da tarbiyya mai kyau, domin al’adar ko tarbiyyar sune suke gina shi a kan fasalin mutumin kirki, ko kuma “dan asali”.

Za a iya aron dabi’a da ma gargajiya, amma ba za a iya aron al’ada ba, domin ita al’ada tana tattare da ruhin mai ita; bayan dabi’a kuwa ta kan canza bisa yadda yanayin zama yakama; kai har ma aron ta ake yi, amma ba za a taba aron al’ada ba. Saboda haka za iya aron abubuwan sarrafa dabi’a, a gyarasu, a canza su, in kuma an gaji da su a zubar da su. Amma ba a aron al’ada domin ita al’ada tana like ne da ruhin mai ita a matsayin sinadari.

A duk inda ake nazarin zamantakewar Bahaushe, dole sai ka ji ana ta cakuda wadanan rukunayen zaman mutum -- dabi’a, tada, da kuma al’ada. Wani lokaci in an ce al’ada, to ana nufin dabi’a; sannan kuma in an yi maganar dabi’a, saka ji lallai ba al’ada ake magana ba, ana maganar tada ne. Ya zama wajibi a bambanta kowanne da kawo bayanai da hujjoji domin su tallafawa bayanin.


Dabi’a da Zamanancin Bahaushe
Duk da na ganin kamar Bahaushe bagidaje ne, bana jin akwai kabilar da ta fi Bahaushe rungumar zamanin da ya sami kansa. Wannan ba zai zama abin mamaki ba domin kasar Hausa dadaddiyar matattara al’ummatai ce. Su kansu Hausawan ba mazauna ne ba, akwai su da yaron kasuwanci da fatauci. Ta haka sukan ci karo da abubuwa baki da yawa, daga yare da are-aren kalmomi, zuwa ire-iren abinci da kuma tufafi, kai har da ma sigar gine-gine. A duk lokacin da Bahaushe ya ci karo da wani abu sabo, dan-da-nan yake karbarsa, in har ya yi daidai da abin da saba da shi. Idan kuwa bai daidata sahu da rayuwarsa ba, to bijire masa yake yi, komai kyaun sa. A bisa wannan tarihi na Bahaushe, babu wanda ya fi Bahaushe karbar zamani.

Ta wannan hanyar, da yawa daga cikin abubuwan da muke amfani da su, wadanda ake ganin kamar aro ne, duk na sarrafa dabi’a ne, kuma da yawa na aron ne. Misali, Bahaushe bai san ya yi gini da kusurwa hudu ba, sai da ya hadu da Larabawa. Kafin wannan lokacin Bahaushe bai san tubali ba, a wajen Larabawan ya gani. Amma ya karbi gini da tubali, daga baya da sauyin zamani ya zo, ya ke amfani da bulo, da farko da na kasa, daga baya ya koma na siminti. Wannan canjin yana nuna canjin dabi’ar Bahause ta gini, wanda dama da aro ya fara shi.

Haka kafin haduwar Bahaushe da Larabawa, abincinsa kusan kayyadadde ne – dambu, tuwo, zogale, dan wake, da sauransu. Haduwa da Larabawa ya canza dabi’ar cin abinsa ya fara cin gurasa, alkubus, algaragis, da sauransu. Yau in ya ce ya daina cin dambu – ra’ayi ne, ba Hausanci ba, domin takan yiwu a haifi Bahaushe a kasar da babu dambu ko kuma kayan sarrafa shi, kamar a ce Australiya – shike nan kuma sai a ce ba Bahaushe bane don ba ya cin dambu?

Sannan kuma babban abin da ya kawo ake ganin kamar ma babu wata kabila Hausawa, kuma Hausanci ai yarene, ba wani abu bane illa ganin yadda tabbas kam Bahaushe na da saurin aron abubuwa. Kusan duk abin da aka ga Bahaushe ya ara, to yayi ne a matsayin makami domin hulda da wadanda ya ara daga wajensu; kuma in abin bai yi masa ba, zubar da shi zai yi; in kuma ya yi masa, zai narkar da shi ya zama nasa, ta yadda ko shi kansa wanda ya bawa Bahaushe aron abin, ba zai iya gane shi ba. Amma duk abin da ya ara, abin sarrafawa ne – daga tufafi, zuwa dabarun dafa abinci, zuwa ire-iren abinci, kuma zuwa kalmomi. Duk wadannan an aro su, ana kuma amfani da su, kuma in basu dace da al’ada ba, to zubar da su ake yi ta yin Allah-wadai da su.

Babu inda Bahause ya nuna gwanintarsa ta aron abubuwa suka zama masarrafai gare shi kamar harshe. Bincike ya nuna cewa har ya zuwa 1960 kusan kashi 20 daga 100 na kalmomin Hausa da Fulanci daga Larabci suke.[8] Sannan kuma daga 1960 zuwa yanzu, an samu karin wadansu kalmomin da Bahaushe ya ara a cikin Larabci yadda abin zai kai kusan kashi 40 ko fiye daga cikin dari daga kalmomin da aka ara.

Sannan sauran yararraki sun shigo cikin Hausa sosai ta yadda Bahaushe ya ari abubuwansu ya mayar nasa. Amma kusan duk abin da aka ga Bahaushe ya ara, to kamar yadda na ce, abin sarrafawa ne, ba tsarin mu’amala ba. Misalai daga cikin yararrakin da Bahaushe ya ci karo da su, sannan kuma ya ari kalmominsu sun hada da Azbinanci, Fullatanci, Barbanci, da Nufanci. Ga jadawalin da ya nuna misalai daga cikin wadannan are-aren kalmomin daga wadansu yararrakin cikin Hausa:

6 comments:

  1. To Ingaya muku cewa KO ASo Ko A ASo, Hausa dagga Masar Suka Iso a wannan wurin da muke Yanzu. Masana tun Farkon wanan qarni sun bada bayanin haka maa tarihin da kakinne suka bari.
    Wuri da yawa a Egypt yana doke da sunayen Hausa Har a yanzu Kamar garin Masara, Azna, wadi-Es-Sebuah,El Amarna, Dakhila, Karnaka,Dandereh, Qasr(Kasa)-El Farfarh (White Desert) etc.
    Hausa an same ta daga sunan fir'auna Hausal Ne.
    Kuma in Gaya Muku Cewa Habasha Sunan wanin sarki ne wanda ya zamni da wani annabi: habasha Kanen Sarkin Tabukka. Habasha yaje ya yaki wana annabi kuma a qarshe sai ya Tuba.Bazai kasance kamar yadda mai rubutu yace Azbinawa sunawa hausa doka masu Habshi qaryane. Agadez Hausawa (Gobir) suka Kafa ta, da birnin Azbin, da Marandet suka baro wurin. Kabi ta Jima tana Ikon Azbin:kenan ba wurin reni

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  2. Allah Ya taimake mu Ya kuma kara inganta mana Hausar mu. Ameen

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  3. Allah ya saka muku da wannan aiki da kuke yi don bunkasa al'adun hausawa.

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  4. Hausa abun alfaharine ga duk wanda yake bahaushe da ba bahsusheba. Domin naga abun mamaki lokacinda nake karatu a kasar Libiya tsakanin shekarar 2004 zuwa 2010. Na shiga wasu yankuna a kudancin Libiya kusan zaka samu yaren Hausa shi yafi tasiri a wadannan yankunan. Ina rokon Allah ya yiwa wadanda suka yi kokari suka kaddamar da wannan bahasin da fatan Allah ya daukaka mana ya renmu na Hausa. Amin.

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  5. Allah ya kara budi Ameeen summa Ameen.

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